Technical SEO essentials for beginners


Technical SEO essentials for beginners

Understanding Technical SEO

Technical SEO is a crucial aspect of search engine optimisation that focuses on the optimisation of your website’s infrastructure. The goal is to make it easy for search engine crawlers to navigate, understand, and index your site effectively. This article will discuss the essential components of technical SEO for beginners, providing a comprehensive guide to optimising your website’s technical performance.

1. Website Crawling and Indexing

Ensure that search engines can efficiently crawl and index your website. Create a sitemap.xml file and submit it to Google Search Console and Bing Webmaster Tools to help search engines discover and index your site’s pages. Additionally, use the robots.txt file to specify which pages or sections of your site should not be indexed by search engines.

2. Site Structure and Internal Linking

A well-organised site structure is essential for both user experience and search engine crawlers. Create a clear and logical site hierarchy, with a limited number of categories and subcategories. Use internal links to connect relevant pages, distributing link equity throughout your site and making it easier for search engines to discover and index your content.

3. URL Structure

Optimise your website’s URL structure by keeping it simple, descriptive, and readable. Use hyphens to separate words, and avoid using special characters or unnecessary parameters. Including relevant keywords in your URLs can also help improve your site’s visibility in search results.

4. Mobile-Friendliness

With the rise of mobile browsing, ensuring your website is mobile-friendly is crucial. Use responsive design to adapt your site’s layout and content to various screen sizes and devices. Test your site’s mobile usability with tools like Google’s Mobile-Friendly Test and implement any necessary changes to improve the mobile experience.

5. Site Speed

Site speed is a critical ranking factor for search engines, as it directly impacts user experience. Use tools such as Google PageSpeed Insights or GTmetrix to analyse your site’s performance and identify areas for improvement. Implement recommended changes, including optimising images, enabling browser caching, and minifying CSS, JavaScript, and HTML files.

6. Secure Connection (HTTPS)

Ensure your website uses a secure connection by implementing HTTPS, which encrypts data transmitted between a user’s browser and your web server. This provides an extra layer of security and is a ranking factor in Google’s algorithm. Acquire an SSL certificate from a trusted provider, and properly configure your site to use HTTPS.

7. Duplicate Content

Duplicate content can confuse search engines and negatively impact your site’s rankings. Use canonical tags to indicate the preferred version of a page, and employ 301 redirects for pages with similar content. Additionally, consider using the rel=”alternate” hreflang attribute for pages targeting different languages or regions.

8. Structured Data Markup

Structured data markup, also known as schema markup, is a way to provide additional context to search engines about your site’s content. This can help search engines display rich snippets, such as star ratings, event information, or product prices, in search results. Implement structured data using vocabulary and test your markup using Google’s Structured Data Testing Tool.

9. Broken Links and 404 Errors

Broken links and 404 errors can harm your site’s user experience and search engine rankings. Regularly audit your site for broken links and missing pages using tools like Screaming Frog SEO Spider or Google Search Console. Fix any issues by updating links or implementing 301 redirects to relevant pages.

10. XML Sitemap and Robots.txt Optimisation

Optimise your XML sitemap by keeping it up-to-date with your latest content and removing any broken or low-value pages. Submit your sitemap to search engines through their respective webmaster tools for efficient crawling and indexing. Additionally, review and optimise your robots.txt file to ensure you’re not accidentally blocking search engines from accessing critical pages on your site.


Technical SEO is a vital aspect of optimising your website for search engines. By addressing these essentials, you can improve your site’s visibility, user experience, and overall performance. Remember to regularly monitor your site’s technical health and stay up-to-date with industry best practices to maintain your site’s optimisation in the ever-evolving digital landscape.